Different manufacturers produce tablets under the brand name "Dexamethasone", there are no synonyms.
Other dosage forms: eye ointment, injections .
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Instructions for use
Dexamethasone is a long-acting synthetic fluorinated glucocorticosteroid with an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effect that is 35 times stronger from cortisone and 7 times more from prednisone . It has anti-shock, anti-toxic, anti-allergic and desensitizing effects.
Dexamethasone tablets belong to the group of systemic hormonal drugs, and are used in the treatment of many external and internal diseases. But the medicine has many side effects , and should be prescribed only when necessary by a qualified technician.
Dexamethasone is indicated for the following diseases:
- Chronic allergies when relieving severe symptoms that cannot be removed by other means - atypical dermatitis, bronchial asthma , conjunctivitis, and rhinitis of an allergic nature;
- Chronic infectious-allergic diseases, including autoimmune (allergic reaction to own tissues) - ankylosing spondylitis, glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc .;
- In replacement therapy during chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex;
- During systemic pathologies of connective tissues - scleroderma, lupus, etc .;
- Cerebral edema caused by hemorrhages, injuries or tumors;
- Leukemia, leukemia, lymphoma;
- Congenital androgenital syndrome, in which the adrenal cortex produces insufficient GCS, resulting in an increase in the blood content of male hormones and failure of the menstrual cycle in women;
- Shock states after burns, operations, injuries, toxic effects, vascular insufficiency;
- Oncological diseases.
Dosage and administration
Dexamethasone tablets are taken by mouth. The dose of the drug depends on the severity and nature of the disease, its tolerance, the duration of the course of treatment:
- At the beginning of treatment and severe form - up to 10-15 mg / day.;
- With maintenance therapy from 2-4.5 mg or more per day;
- The minimum effective dose of 0.5-1 mg / day.;
- The maximum dose of 15 mg / day.
The daily dose is divided into 2-4 doses. When the therapeutic effect is achieved, the dosage is slowly reduced (0.5 mg every 3 days) until the maintenance dose is reached.
With long-term use of Dexamethasone, in addition to replacement and emergency treatment, the drug is contraindicated in:
- Individual intolerance;
- Severe stages of osteoporosis;
- Peptic ulcer or duodenal ulcer. guts;
- Mental illness;
- Pink acne, shingles;
- Before vaccination within 8 weeks, and after it 2 weeks;
- Lymphadenitis after tuberculosis vaccination;
- Exacerbations of myocardial infarction;
- Systemic mycosis;
- Amebic infection;
After taking the drug may cause the following side effects:
- In the digestive system: nausea, heartburn, acute pancreatitis, bleeding in the intestines and blood in the stool, liver damage, esophagitis, heaviness in the abdomen;
- In the nervous system: depression, high intracranial pressure, convulsions, insomnia, dizziness, problems with hearing and vision, irritability, psychosis;
- In the endocrine system: adrenal insufficiency, failures of the menstrual cycle, aggravation of diabetes symptoms, weight gain, water retention, Itsenko-Cushing syndrome;
- Other manifestations: thinning of the skin, signs of sexual dysfunction, allergies, bronchospastic and anaphylactic manifestations, acne.
Composition and pharmacokinetics
Dexamethasone tablets include:
- Active ingredient: dexamethasone - 0.05 mg.
- Excipients: potato starch, sugar, stearic acid.
After oral administration of Dexamethasone, it is rapidly and completely absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Peak concentration in the blood is observed after 1-2 hours., 60% of the substance is bound to albumin. Metabolism occurs in all tissues, but most of it occurs in the liver under the influence of the cychromo-containing CYP2C enzyme. Metabolism products are excreted in the urine and feces.
The half-life for healthy people is from 3.5 to 5 hours, in patients it is lengthened. Oral contraceptives removal delay. The duration of the anti-inflammatory effect of the drug after oral administration approaches 72 hours.
Patients undergoing long-term therapy with Dexamethasone may experience a withdrawal syndrome after completion of the course, characterized by fever, nasal secretions, hyperemia, dizziness, weakness, cramps, headaches and muscle pain, drowsiness and irritability. Abrupt cessation of the drug can be fatal, it should be canceled gradually phased dose reduction.
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