Not a single appointment with a doctor is complete without a question: “Is there an allergy to medications?”.
Each adequate parent, before buying a puppy or a kitten, will think: “But will this provoke an allergy in my baby?”.
Any girl knows that a new cosmetic should be applied in small portions on the skin of the forearm, so as not to cause a complex reaction.
It so happened that allergies - one of the most common diseases. It is easier to prevent than to deal with the consequences. Because it is very important to know what causes the symptoms of the disease, and avoid contact with allergens.
What most often provokes an allergy?
Allergies can cause any substance that you use. It can be medicine, food, and laundry detergent.
- drugs: antibiotics (penicillin and its derivatives);
- anesthetics (novocaine), NSAIDs (analgin, paracetamol), x-ray contrast agents, vaccines, etc .;
- products: citrus, honey, chocolate, nuts, seafood, dairy products , eggs ;
- cleaning products: powders, gels with disinfectants, dishwashing detergents, latex gloves;
- cosmetics: varnishes , powder, deodorants, lipstick, cream;
- pet hair (dogs, cats);
- insect bites ;
- dust mite , mold;
- pollen of flowering plants (birch, poplar, wormwood, nettle, quinoa);
- construction materials .
How to independently verify the presence of a reaction?
To understand exactly what causes you unpleasant symptoms, you need to analyze their appearance. Is allergy manifested at home or at work? What time of day? During or after a meal? Is it related to taking medicine or applying cosmetics? Does the time of the year or the time of day affect the symptoms?
Answers to these questions should push you to an allergen. Then you just need to make sure, assessing your reaction when contacting him.
For example, to identify allergies to animal hair, you can pet a cat (dog), and then scratch your nose or eyes with this hand. Such actions should cause itching, redness of mucous membranes, clear discharge from the nose and tearing.
These symptoms suggest that you are allergic to a cat (dog). To be more precise, such an allergy is caused by proteins from the saliva of the animal. Pet licks its wool tongue. Proteins fall on the skin of the animal, and then on your mucous membrane, causing discomfort.
Learning about food allergies is more difficult (except when the reaction starts immediately after eating the product). The easiest way to eliminate the dish from the diet, and when the symptoms of the disease have disappeared, eat it again. If the reaction is repeated, then this product should be completely excluded from the food.
Allergic reaction to cosmetics or detergents can also be identified independently.
Consider, for example, hand cream. To make sure that the new tool does not cause you an allergy, you need to put it on the elbow bend or neck (there is very sensitive skin). If, after 30-40 minutes, rashes, redness, itching appear on the skin, then you are allergic to the cream of this brand.
How to identify the reaction to medication?
Allergy to medications has more serious manifestations, since all drugs are quickly absorbed into the blood.
Therefore, it manifests itself not only locally, but also systemically (up to anaphylactic shock ).
Such reactions are very important to warn in advance.
Preliminary diagnosis can be done at home.
Consider allergy to procaine. This medicinal substance is used for conduction anesthesia (minimally invasive operations, administration of antibiotics, etc.).
In order to make sure that the drug does not harm, you need to drop a 0.5% solution on the skin of the inside of the elbow (application test). The reaction is evaluated in half an hour. The appearance of any discomfort speaks of allergies.
Tests and skin tests
To find out exactly what causes allergies, you need to consult a doctor. An allergist with the help of special methods of examination can highlight the allergen and give advice on the treatment of the disease. In the diagnosis of use:
- skin scarification tests - on the inside of the forearm with a scarifier make a scratch and drip the allergen solution. T. o. up to 15 substances can be checked simultaneously. If a swelling or swelling occurs at the injection site after 20 minutes, the test is considered positive;
- рrick-test - introduction of a solution with an allergen with a special needle to a depth of 1 mm. The result is evaluated after 10-15 minutes;
- intracutaneous samples - carried out with questionable scratch analysis. 0.02 ml of a liquid with an allergen is injected intradermally with a tuberculin syringe. Evaluate the result in comparison with the control notch (0.01% histamine);
- isolation of specific IgE - for this analysis, fasting venous blood is collected (5-10 ml). If the serum reacts with an allergen, then class E immunoglobulins are formed, which are responsible for the allergic disease. A few days before the study, you should avoid overwork and stress;
- immunoblotting - a set of standard panels are used for analysis, each of which contains about 20 allergens. Venous blood is applied to special membranes with proteins responsible for pathological reactions. If the analysis is positive, a dark bar appears on the label. This method is very informative and has no contraindications.
Features of the child's body
Children over 6 months old are immunoblotted and tested for IgE. At a younger age, this study will not give results, because there are still many maternal immunoglobulins in the blood.
In children under 5 years of age, skin diagnosis of allergic diseases is rarely carried out due to the failure of their immune system.
Since children's body is still poorly formed by this time, test results are often false. Moreover, scarification tests can lead to serious complications.
Older children use all of the methods listed above.
Contraindications to the diagnosis (common for children and adults):
- acute respiratory diseases;
- exacerbation of allergies;
- severe diseases of internal organs;
- hormone therapy.
To avoid allergic reactions, it is necessary not only to limit contact with the allergen, but also to observe a healthy lifestyle. Eat right , exercise, walk in the fresh air. Avoid physical and emotional stress. This will strengthen your body, and it can easily withstand any allergies.
If you suddenly notice the symptoms of the disease, immediately contact the clinic. The doctor will be able to conduct an adequate diagnosis and prescribe therapy. Never self-medicate!