Candidiasis of the intestine is a disease caused by conditionally pathogenic fungi of the genus Candida. Conditionally pathogenic they are called because micromycetes - unicellular microorganisms, are found in the intestine in more than 50% (meaning people who did not consult doctors with symptoms of candidiasis) of healthy people.
Causes of development and clinical manifestations
The causative agents of Candida candida are Candida fungi. They can belong to different species (Candida glabrata, Candida albicans , Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida lusitaniae, Candida dubliniensis, Candida krusei), but they are negligible in the human body. The growth of colonies is prevented by bifidobacteria, E. coli, lactobacilli, enterococci, as well as mucin glycoprotein of the epithelial cell wall, which covers the mucous membrane. The latter prevents the attachment of the microbe to the epithelial cells.
The Candida has no significant effect on the host's organism, and only when the body's defenses are inhibited, the immunity of the fungus begins to actively multiply and capture various parts of the intestine. Both normal intestinal microflora and barrier compounds contribute to antifungal resistance (resistance), and when the activity of one of these factors is suppressed or reduced, the defenses of the body weaken and yeast fungi penetrate into the internal environment.
What leads to a decrease in antifungal resistance? Various conditions and diseases:
- Oncological diseases (antitumor therapy suppresses the immune system and depresses the protective forces of the epithelial intestinal cover);
- Physiological immunodeficiencies (age and conditions: early childhood and elderly age, stressful conditions and pregnancy, immunodeficiency);
- Endocrinological disorders (decompensated diabetes mellitus);
- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome;
- Allergic and autoimmune diseases;
- Any diseases that cause or against which there is a violation of absorption and digestion of food (these processes accompany the active growth of colonies of microorganisms);
- Organ transplantation
The most common causes are antibiotic therapy and unbalanced nutrition. The equilibrium of the microbial biocenosis of the intestine is easily disturbed by the prolonged intake of antibacterial drugs. Analogously affects the activity of phagocytes and bacteria inadequate amount of protein supplied to the body.
Deterioration of appetite, increased fatigue, swelling and heaviness in the abdomen, whites resembling cottage cheese, stitching in the stool, pains in the stomach, unformed stools and a troubling feeling of incomplete bowel evacuation are far from a complete list of clinical manifestations of intestinal candidiasis. As you can see, they do not have absolute specificity, so it's worth to look to the doctor and undergo a complete clinical and laboratory examination, after which to begin treatment of this rather unpleasant and dangerous disease.
Diagnosis is complicated by the fact that the causative agent of candidiasis can both passively exist in the intestine, and participate in the pathological process.
Often a clinical laboratory examination includes:
- Endoscopic examination. It allows you to assess the condition of the mucosa, confirms the presence or absence of ulcerative defects and white plaque.
- Radiography of the intestine.
- Microbiological study. It allows to determine the species belonging of the pathogen and to select the appropriate antimycotic for treatment. The sowing of feces is also of diagnostic importance. So, the diagnosis is confirmed. If the number of colonies detected is more than 105-106 cfu per gram.
- Histological and cytological examination. Scraping from the mucous membranes of the intestine, gingival biopsy, brush-biopsy can identify Candida pseudomycelia by staining the biomaterial or treating it with chromic acid.
- Invasive, focal and non-invasive candidiasis of the intestine
Clinical manifestations of candidiasis of the intestine depend on the mechanism of the introduction of Candida fungus into the tissue. So, if the filamentous form of the fungus does not penetrate into the tissue, and Candida actively multiplies in the lumen of the intestine, then candidiasis is considered non-invasive . Violated with this form of candidiasis only cavitary and parietal digestion.
Sensations of the patient:
- Itching in the anus
- Unformed chair
- Feeling of raspiraniya in the intestines
- Spastic pain in the abdomen
- Signs of moderate intoxication
Neither compliance with the diet, nor the cessation of antibiotic treatment does not bring relief. Positive dynamics can be traced only in the treatment of antimycotic drugs.
The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis of the intestine is made when the fungus is implanted in the epithelial layer and the basal membrane. It is characterized by a severe course and is accompanied by symptoms of peptic ulcer .
Sensations of the patient:
- Abdominal pain
- Diarrhea with impurities of blood and mucus
- Subfebrile fever
- The phenomena of perianal candidemodermitis
If the treatment of invasive candidiasis of the intestine is not started in time, then its transformation into a systemic candidiasis with a lesion of the mucous membranes of other organs is probable.
Directions of drug treatment of intestinal candidiasis
Therapeutic directions, according to which the treatment plan of intestinal candidiasis is worth, is somewhat.
- Selective decontamination of the intestine, i.e. Taking drugs that will eliminate the causative agent of the disease - Candida fungi.
- Treatment of major and concomitant diseases.
- The appointment of a course of prebiotics and probiotics to restore the natural antimicrobial microflora of the intestinal mucosa.
All antifungal (antifungal) drugs depress the biosynthesis of ergosterol cell walls of fungi. However, some antifungal agents are absorbed in the upper intestine, and in the lumen of the thick and ileum they are not sufficiently concentrated, and it is there that the main colonies of fungi are concentrated in intestinal candidiasis. In connection with this, the reception of such antifungal drugs as ketoconazole , amphotericin B, fluconazole , itraconazole will not give an effect. On the contrary, it is possible to develop toxic hepatitis and multiple side effects.
Thus, for treatment it is necessary to use nonabsorbable antifungal drugs.
4 times a day on a tablet (100 mg) for 7-10 days - adults.
2 times a day for 1 tablet (100 mg.) For 5-10 days.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to the components of the drug.
|Levorin||Adults: 2-4 times a day 10-12 days for 500 000 units. Children (based on kg of body weight): up to 2 years for 25-30 000 units., 2-6 years for 20-25 000 units., More than 6 years - 200-250 000 units. 2-4 times a day. Contraindications: peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, pregnancy, age under 2 years, kidney failure.|
|Nystatin||Duration of treatment is 10-14 days. Adults: in a dose of 500 000 units. 3-4 times a day. Children: up to a year - three times a day for ¼ tablets at a dosage of 250 000 units., Up to 3 years - in the same dosage 3-4 times a day, over 3 years - 4 times a day, older 13 years the maximum dose is 1 000 000 units. Per day. Contraindication: individual intolerance. During pregnancy, the drug is allowed.|
Treatment with antifungal drugs is considered effective if the symptoms of the disease have disappeared and mycological findings indicate a normalization of the number of fungi. A positive seeding result may indicate a candidate for a carrier who, in fact, is not a disease.
In parallel, concomitant diseases are treated. For example, peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease are treated with antisecretory drugs (lansap, non-oxyum) and histamine H2-receptor blockers. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy is carried out with amoxicillin, omeprozole. Prebiotics (the so-called stimulators of the intensional growth of normal microflora) should also be included in the diet. Pectin, lactulose, Eubikor - a preparation rich in dietary fiber, amino acids and vitamins, will become an excellent beginning. Dietary fibers, without undergoing changes, enter the large intestine and are metabolized by microbiota. The latter stimulate the formation of mucus and cells, where bifido- and lactobacilli feel comfortable.
In the period of therapy of intestinal candidiasis, experts recommend stopping eating foods that are rich in simple carbohydrates: milk, berries, sugar, confectionery, kvass, beer, honey.
For those who do not accept medication for any reasons, we offer several recipes for traditional medicine. As always we remind: self-treatment is unsafe, consult with the doctor.
Boil the oats (for 5 tablespoons of 15 tablespoons water) for three hours, the resulting broth filter and take inside 3 times a day for 100 grams. In a warm state. Duration of treatment - up to 4 months.
In ¾ cup of cognac, add 3 tablespoons. Salt, stir until dissolving the crystals of the salt. After half an hour we dilute the tincture with boiling water from the ratio 1: 3. The resulting drug is drunk once a day, adding to 2 tablespoons. Tinctures 6 tablespoons. Water, 1 hour before meals. Duration of treatment is 25 days.
If neither the treatment with folk remedies, nor the treatment with medicines gives a result, it makes sense to clarify the diagnosis and undergo a checkup in a specialized mycological clinic. The absence of treatment is fraught with the defeat of parenchymal organs and the development of intestinal perforation and fungal sepsis.